Telecom 101: Fifth Edition 2020 now available on Apple Books

Packed with information, authoritative, covering all major topics – and written in plain English – Telecom 101 is also an invaluable textbook and day-to-day reference on telecom.

Completely updated and revised for the 2020s, the new Fifth Edition of Telecom 101 is the materials from the latest version of Teracom’s famous Course 101 Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers, plus additional topics and chapters.

In a user-friendly 7 x 9″ softcover version, printed in color, or in eBook format, Telecom 101 brings you in one volume consistency, completeness and unbeatable value.

Telecom 101 also serves as a study guide for the Telecommunications Certification Organization TCO Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA) telecommunications certification, covering all material required for the CTA Certification Exam except the security module.

Our approach can be summed up with a simple philosophy: Start at the beginning. Progress in a logical order. Build one concept on top of another. Finish at the end. Avoid jargon. Speak in plain English. Bust the buzzwords, demystify jargon, and cut through doubletalk!

Fill gaps and build a solid base of structured knowledge. Understand how everything fits together. … knowledge and understanding that lasts a lifetime.

Ideal for anyone needing a book covering all major topics in telecom, data communications, IP and networking … in plain English.

A wealth of clear, concise, organized knowledge, impossible to find in one place anywhere else!

High-Quality Reference Book and Study Guide Covering All Major Telecommunications Topics… in Plain English.
7″ x 9″ softcover book • printed in color • 550 pages • 5th edition • published 2020

ISBN 9781894887588 (print) ISBN 9781894887595 (eBook)

Free previews available on Google Play, Amazon and Apple Books.
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Tutorial: Optical Ethernet

From the new textbook Telecom 101 Fifth Edition: 2020

SFP optical transceivers

Figure 111. SFP Optical Transceivers

10.5 Optical Ethernet

Optical Ethernet is signaling MAC frames (Section 4.4) from one device to another by flashing a light on and off; light on represents a 1 and light off represents a 0 in many systems.

The light, called a wavelength or lamda – λ in Greek – is as close to one single pure frequency as possible, in the infra-red, lower frequencies than what our eyes detect.

In sophisticated systems, the wavelength might be modulated with QAM (Section 3.4) to increase the bit rate.

Normally, Optical Ethernet is implemented as point-to-point connections: from a hardware port on one switch or router to a hardware port on another switch or router in a different building. This includes connections between core routers in cities, connections between routers and switches within a city, and connections from carriers to customers.

10.5.1 SFP Modules and Connectors

The light is generated by a laser controlled by pulses of electricity at the transmitter.  The intensity and sometimes phase of the light is modulated, i.e. changed in discrete steps, to represent bits optically based on the pulses of electricity. Up to 80 km (50 miles) away at the other end of a tube of glass thinner than one of your hairs, a photodetector at the receiver measures the received light and decides what bits are being represented, and transmits them onward as pulses of electricity.

As illustrated in Figure 111, most systems use two fibers, one for each direction. A device combining the transmitter and detector functions is called an optical transceiver.

This device has metal connectors on one side to plug into a slot on a router or switch, and optical connectors on the other side, either factory- or field-installed on the fibers plugged into the transceiver.

These transceivers are typically implemented as Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) modules, which are hot-swappable in the terminating equipment at each end.

100 Gb/s being communicated through this transceiver is the high end of commercially-deployed technology in 2020.

In some cases, the SFP modules are embedded in the terminating equipment, meaning the fibers are plugged into the terminating equipment. This allows re-use of existing fiber. In other cases, the SFP modules are attached to fiber cables by the fiber cable manufacturer, meaning the SFP module is plugged into the terminating equipment. This ensures the fiber and transceiver technology are matched and the optical connection is a high-quality “factory” connection.

The SFP module format is not the subject of a standard, but rather described in industry Multiple Sourcing Agreements (MSA).

10.5.3 IEEE Standards

There are many technologies for transceivers implemented in the SFP module. Some are proprietary; many are standardized by the IEEE. In practice, the same manufacturer’s product is used at both ends of the fiber to ensure compatibility. The table in Figure 112 lists current IEEE standards. More will be published in the future.

SFP optical transceivers

Figure 112. IEEE Optical Ethernet Standards

Most technologies use one fiber for each direction. Some, like for fiber to the home, use two wavelengths for two directions on one fiber. The bitrate of the standards beginning with 1000 is 1,000 Mb/s, or 1 Gb/s. A G at the beginning means Gigabits/second.  40 and 100 Gb/s technologies split the bitstream into subrates and transmit them in parallel on different wavelengths called paths or lanes.

The reach is the maximum length of fiber between devices.  Single-mode and multimode are designations for different qualities of fiber.  Most if not all builds today use single-mode fiber.

Source: Telecom 101 textbook / reference book, Fifth Edition: 2020 available in print and eBook.

Boot Camp Live Online Sept 21-25, 2020

Only 6 weeks away. Register today!

Specifically designed for non‑engineers, Teracom’s renowned telecommunications training is two courses back-to-back to make a full week called BOOT CAMP:

Core training Course 101: Broadband, Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non‑Engineers Monday – Wednesday, then
Course 130: Voice over IP, SIP, Security, 5G and IoT Thursday and Friday.
You may register for individual courses or the full week as best meets your needs. Most people attend all five days, designated as Course 111 BOOT CAMP, to get the most comprehensive and highest quality telecommunications training available, at a discounted price, with three TCO Certifications included: CTNS, CVA and the prestigious TCO CTA Certification.

You will bust the buzzwords, understand the jargon and technologies, and most importantly, the underlying ideas, and how it all fits together …knowledge you can’t get on the job, talking to salespeople or reading articles.

Plus, you’ll get two printed course books with detailed notes bringing all of this material together and sure to be valuable references for years to come. With a total of 25 bonus online certification courses, plus 3 TCO Certification exams, both with unlimited repeats and no time limits.

Your knowledge skills, accuracy, productivity and buzzword-frustration level will all be improved with this career-enhancing training. What’s not to like?

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