BOOT CAMP: Live Online June 14-18

Boot Camp logo

BOOT CAMP Live Online is going strong.  
Check out student evaluations from previous classes.
Join us the week of June 14 to bust the buzzwords, demystify the jargon and understand today’s converged broadband telecommunications, and most importantly, the underlying ideas… and how it all fits together.  

Or contact us for a private class if you have a group!

Teracom’s famous core telecom training for non-engineers, totally updated for the 2020s, with broadband, cloud computing, data centers, 5G, IoT, broadband wireless and much more.

BOOT CAMP Live Online continues to be a great success. Join us June 14 to bust the buzzwords, demystify the jargon and understand today’s telecommunications technologies, and most importantly, the underlying ideas… and how it all fits together.

You will learn and retain more as part of a live class with a real instructor, where you can ask questions and interact with others.

Thousands of people have benefitted from this training.  Join us!

Contact us for a private BOOT CAMP if you have a group!
get more info  •  register  •  detailed BOOT CAMP brochure

Here’s a sampling of student evaluations from previous classes:

“Awesome course, really. Just very, very good.”
  – Tim Wilson, Ciena

“Thank you guys so much, this class was amazing! I would take this all over again!”
– Austin Thompson, NHC

“Since I am very new to telecom, this helped me connect the dots, the different layers and terminology. I liked that it followed the printed workbooks very closely so I could read the summaries after the lessons. The instructor was great. He kept it light, added some jokes to keep it entertaining.  I liked most when he did drawings with his explanations.”
  – Ashley Brinkman, Marketing Manager, MTA, Palmer Alaska

“The course was very beneficial for me.  I wish I would have been able to take this class a few years back when I first started!”
  – Tamara Pepin, CRTC

“I had some of the basics; this class filled gaps and added much more depth. Instructor Richard was open to questions at any time, and revisited topics until we got it. Having the notes in the printed course book to follow along and add to was very helpful. Richard was very passionate about the course material and had great real-life examples.”
– Robert Smieszny, NHC

“Richard is an excellent instructor. He has unmatched knowledge on the subject! He does a fantastic job interacting as if we are physically in a classroom with him!”
– Daniel Herfel, National Institute of Standards and Technology

All you need to join BOOT CAMP Live Online and get this world-famous training is a laptop with a webcam. We’ll ship you the high-quality printed color course books in advance of the BOOT CAMP, and you’ll be part of a class that runs 9 – 5 Monday – Friday.

The best part: BOOT CAMP was totally updated for 2020, with 5G, Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Smart Cities & more, just before the pandemic struck! 

This is the most up-to-date telecom-for-non-engineers training that can be found anywhere.

This is truly career-enhancing knowledge.

Teracom BOOT CAMP Live Online is a great opportunity:

  • Live interactive group training, guaranteed coronavirus-free!
  • You will be part of a class.
  • You will be able to see and hear everyone else.
  • We’ll ship you the high-quality printed color course books in advance.
  • The instructor will stand up at the front of the room and teach the class like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • The instructor will keep you focused, so you learn, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • You can ask the instructor questions, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • The class will run on a schedule: 9 – 5 Monday to Friday, with scheduled breaks, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • You get immediate access to three TCO Certification Packages, with their online courses.
  • No travel required.
  • Anyone worldwide can take BOOT CAMP.
  • All you need is a laptop with a webcam.

This is an ideal time to get the training you need!

You’ll get the course materials shipped to you: two printed color books totaling over 500 pages with copies of all graphics and detailed text notes.

You will also get immediate access to the included TCO Certification Packages: CTNS, CTA and CVA and their twenty full-length online courses, with no time limits and unlimited repeats.

You’ll get the full BOOT CAMP with our top instructor, as close as you can get without actually being there.

If you are an international participant, this is your opportunity to take BOOT CAMP. No US travel visa required!

Carpe diem!

Get more info

BOOT CAMP Live Online Instructor-Led Training Request

Want to take Boot Camp, but need to get approval. Here is a message you can send to your supervisor for approval.

BOOT CAMP Live Online Instructor-Led Training Request

Dear [Manager]

I need to get training on telecom to do my job effectively, and to that end, I would like to request permission to register for Teracom Training Institute’s Live Online telecom BOOT CAMP seminar the week of May 3-7.

www.teracomtraining.com/boot-camp.htm
detailed outline: www.teracomtraining.com/courses/teracom-brochure-course-111.pdf 
course listing: www.teracomtraining.com/public_seminars.htm#LO

Teracom Training Institute specializes in telecommunications training for non-engineering professionals, which is exactly what I need.

I need this training because I have learned some things technology-wise “on the job”; but am frustrated by gaps in my knowledge, especially when people start speaking in jargon and buzzwords.  Not being up to speed on it all is unproductive, frustrating and a bit awkward.

This training will improve my productivity, accuracy and efficiency… and enable me to contribute a lot more, having a knowledge base in the technologies and the jargon.

Being part of a live online class will keep me away from distractions, so I can concentrate and learn what I need.  Instructor-led training is how I learn best.  Plus, the high-quality detailed course books they will ship directly to me before the course will be good references going forward.

Teracom is the leader in this kind of training… type “telecommunications training” into Google and Teracom Training Institute comes up #1 in the search results. They’ve been doing this since 1992, and by all accounts are very good at it… virtually all of their ratings on Google are 5 stars: https://g.page/teracomtraining. They have a GSA contract for this training, which means they have been thoroughly vetted.

One thing that I like about Teracom’s BOOT CAMP is that it is totally up-to-date, starting with broadband and IP telecom network fundamentals, cloud computing and data centers, LTE and 5G, Optical Ethernet, VoIP, SIP trunking and IoT, plus a module on security.

Here is the five-day outline:

Day 1: Fundamentals, Cloud Computing and Data Centers        
Day 2: Wireless, Fiber and Copper; Equipment and Carriers      
Day 3: IP Networking and addresses plus MPLS, SLAs and Class of Service Guarantees
Day 4: VoIP and SIP: Fundamentals and Technologies, Softswitch as a Service
Day 5: Security, 5G and IoT

It comes with two course books printed in color shipped directly to me.

As a bonus, three TCO Certification Packages: CTNS, CVA and CTA are included, along with their courses and certification exams. There are no time limits or expiration dates on the bonus online courses.

This is the training I need. It will give me a solid base, fill in gaps and get me up to speed on the jargon, technologies and standard practices across the board.

Besides alleviating the frustrating jargon and buzzwords situation, it makes good business sense for me to attend. This training will make me more accurate – understanding the big picture, the ensemble of technologies and how they relate – and this can only make me (and therefore you) more productive and save the organization money.

The in-class discussions and case studies are also an excellent opportunity for me to discuss the general outlines of our situation and find out what others are doing.

The tuition is only $1895 for five days of professional training. I checked around and found other companies like Global Knowledge charge double or more for similar week-long courses, without the included online courses and certifications, and without the printed books.

There is an optional companion reference textbook at $89 I’d like to get as well.

Please let me know if I can get this training.

Thank you,

Tutorial: How to Use Cellular as Backup Internet Access When Your DSL, Cable or Fiber Internet Dies

The Internet connection at your office dies. Lights on your modem are flashing in a strange pattern. You call the ISP, and they quickly diagnose that the modem power supply has failed, and they will overnight you a replacement. Presumably you are not the first person to have this problem with that modem.

So how do you continue to operate while you are waiting for the replacement power supply? It’s hard to run your business without e-mail and ordering and administration systems, which are all accessed via the Internet.

If you want availability, you need two connections to the Internet, so if one fails you are not out of business. We go over this in the lesson “Mature Competitive Carrier Network: Regional Rings, POPs and MANs”, slide 3.17 of Course 101, Telecom Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineers, and mention it in pretty much every other course.

A large business will be a station on a Metropolitan Area Network, which is a ring, meaning two connections to the Internet for that business and automatic reconfiguration in the case of one failing. But this is expensive… the second connection is not free.

Small and medium businesses usually have a single DSL or cable modem connection to the Internet. When that fails, connectivity to email, ordering and administration servers is impossible, and many businesses these days would be “dead in the water” until the ISP fixes the problem with their hardware.

Unless you have an Android smartphone, a good “data” plan and a laptop with WiFi running Windows.

The scenario described happened at our office last week. Since many of our customers might find themselves in a similar situation – even at home – I thought I’d share the quick and painless solution I came up with. Even if you’re not likely to need this solution, understanding how it works will no doubt sharpen your understanding of the devices involved and their functions.

In this tutorial, I will use the technology in our office: 50 Mb/s DSL, Android smartphone and Windows laptop. The solution is equally applicable to an Internet connection using a cable modem or if you are one of the lucky few, an Internet connection via fiber.

For the smartphone and laptop, there may be equivalent functions on Apple products, but as I am allergic to Apples, we don’t have any in the office. I’m posting this tutorial on our our Facebook page, our GoogleMyBusiness page, or our blog; I invite someone better able to tolerate Apple products to leave a comment whether and how the iPhone and MacBook can perform the required functions.

normal office lan and wired internet connection

The diagram above illustrates the normal network setup in our office, a typical configuration for networking at a small or medium business. On the left is the access circuit to the Internet Service Provider (ISP), terminating on a modem in our office.

The modem is contained in a box that also includes a computer and an Ethernet switch. This box is more properly called the Customer Edge (CE). The computer in the CE runs many different computer programs performing various functions: Stateful Packet Inspection firewall, DHCP server offering private IP addresses to the computers in-building, DHCP client obtaining a public IP address from the ISP, a Network Address Translation function between the two, routing, port forwarding and more.

In-building is a collection of desktop computers, servers and network printers. These are connected with Category 5e LAN cables to Gigabit Ethernet LAN switches, one of which is also connected to the CE.

When a desktop computer is restarted, its DHCP client obtains a private IP address and Domain Name Server (DNS) address from the DHCP server in the CE. The private address of the CE is configured as the “default gateway” for the desktop by Windows.

When a desktop computer wants to communicate with a server over the Internet, it looks up the server’s numeric IP address via the DNS, then creates a packet from the desktop to the Internet server and transmits it to its default gateway, the CE. The NAT function in the CE changes the addresses on the packet to be from the CE to the Internet server and forwards the packet to the ISP via the modem and access circuit. The response from the Internet server is relayed to the CE, where the NAT changes the destination address on the return packet to be the desktop’s private address and relays it to the desktop.

The solution for restoring Internet access after the CE died is illustrated below.

emergency cut line backup of business internet using cellular

An Android smartphone and a laptop running Windows were used to restore connectivity to the Internet without making any changes to the desktops, servers or network printers.

First, I took my Samsung/Google Nexus smartphone running Android out of my pocket and plugged in the charger. Then on its menu under Settings > more > Tethering & portable hotspot > Set up Wi-Fi hotspot, I entered a Network SSID (“TERACOM”) and a password, clicked Save, then clicked Portable Wi-Fi hotspot to turn it on. The smartphone is now acting as a wireless LAN Access Point, just like any other WiFi AP at Starbucks, in the airport or in your home.

At this point, the smartphone is the CE device, performing all of the same functions that the DSL CE device had been before it died: firewall, DHCP client to get a public IP address from the ISP (now via cellular), DHCP server to assign private IP addresses to any clients that wanted to connect (now via WiFi), NAT to translate between the two and router to forward packets.

Just as the DSL CE equipment “bridged” or connected the DSL modem on the ISP side to the Ethernet LAN in-building, allowing all the devices on the LAN to send and receive packets to/from the Internet via DSL, the smartphone “bridges” or connects the cellular modem on the ISP side to the WiFi wireless Ethernet LAN in-building, allowing all the devices on the wireless LAN to send and receive packets to/from the Internet via cellular radio.

The remaining problem was that none of the desktops or servers had wireless LAN cards in them, so they could not connect to the smartphone AP and hence the smartphone’s cellular Internet connection.

What was needed was a device to “bridge” or connect the wired LAN to the wireless LAN in-building. By definition, this device would need two LAN interfaces: a physical Ethernet jack to plug into the wired LAN, plus a wireless LAN capability. Looking around the office, I spotted two devices that fit this description. One of them was my laptop, with both a LAN jack and wireless LAN.

I fired up the laptop, plugged it into an Ethernet switch with a LAN cable, and in the Network and Sharing Center, clicked Change Adapter Settings to get to the Network Connections screen that showed the two LAN interfaces.

I enabled both the wired and wireless LAN interfaces. Then right-clicking the Wireless Network Connection icon, selected the TERACOM wireless network and entered the password.

Once that was successfully connected, I selected the two adapters in the Network Connections screen, right-clicked and chose “Bridge Connections”. A message saying “Please wait while Windows bridges the connections” appeared, then an icon called “Network Bridge” appeared, and after a few seconds, “TERACOM” appeared as well.

My laptop was now acting as an Ethernet switch, connecting the wired LAN to the smartphone’s wireless LAN.

Each of the desktops, servers and network printers in the office had to be rebooted so they would run their DHCP client again, obtaining a private IP address and DNS address from the smartphone AP, and be configured so the smartphone was the “default gateway” in Windows.

After rebooting my desktop computer, it had Internet access over the wired LAN, through the wired Ethernet switch to my laptop, to the smartphone via WiFi then to the ISP over cellular. After rebooting the other desktops and servers, all had Internet access again, with no changes to the configuration of the desktops or servers.

This took about 20 minutes to get up and running, and we were back in business. Running a bandwidth test on speedtest.net, I found we had exactly 5 Mb/s connection to the Internet via cellular. Obviously my cellular service provider limited the connection to 5 Mb/s in software – but who’s complaining? 5 Mb/s is more than three times as fast as a T1, which cost $20,000 per month when I first started in this business 20 years ago.

I hope you found this tutorial useful, either as a template for your own emergency backup Internet connection, or simply as a way of better understanding the devices, their functions and relationships.
— EC

Note 1: You must verify your billing plan for “data” on your cellular contract before doing this. I have 40 GB included, which means basically unlimited, and that includes the WiFi hotspot traffic. Make sure you have something similar, to avoid receiving a bill for $10,000 for casual “data” usage.

Note 2: As always, this tutorial is provided as general background information only. We do not guarantee it will work for you. Each situation is unique and requires professional advice to identify and resolve issues including but not limited to performance and security. This tutorial is not professional advice. But I hope you have found it valuable.

Note 3: I might have been able to implement this without the laptop. If you’d like to know that, or what was the other device I could have used to bridge the wired and wireless LAN in-building, or suggest how this could be done with Apple products, please leave a comment on our Facebook page, our GoogleMyBusiness page, or our blog.

BOOT CAMP LIVE ONLINE May 5-7

BOOT CAMP is running strong during the pandemic Live Online!

All you need to join BOOT CAMP Live Online and get this world-famous training is Internet, a laptop with a webcam and Zoom.

We’ll ship you the high-quality printed color course books in advance of the BOOT CAMP, and you’ll be part of a class that runs 9 – 5 ET Monday – Friday.

The best part: BOOT CAMP was totally updated for 2020, with 5G, Cloud Computing, Data Centers, Smart Cities & more, just before the pandemic struck!  This is the most up-to-date telecom-for-non-engineers training that can be found anywhere.  This is truly career-enhancing knowledge.

Get more info button

Teracom BOOT CAMP Live Online is a great opportunity:

  • Live interactive group training, guaranteed coronavirus-free!
  • You will be part of a class.
  • You will be able to see and hear everyone else.
  • We’ll ship you the high-quality printed color course books in advance.
  • The instructor will teach the class like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • The instructor will keep you focused, so you learn, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • You can ask the instructor questions, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • The class will run on a schedule: 9 – 5 ET Monday to Friday, with scheduled breaks, like any other BOOT CAMP.
  • You get immediate access to three TCO Certification Packages, with their online courses.
  • No travel required.
  • Anyone worldwide can take BOOT CAMP.
  • All you need is a laptop with a webcam.

Get the training you need!

You’ll get the course materials shipped to you: two printed color books totaling over 500 pages with copies of all graphics and detailed text notes.  You will also get immediate access to the included TCO Certification Packages: CTNS, CTA and CVA and their twenty full-length online courses, with no time limits and unlimited repeats.

You’ll get the full BOOT CAMP with a live instructor, as close as you can get without actually being there.

If you are an international participant, this is your opportunity to take BOOT CAMP if you can’t travel to the USA for a public seminar.  No travel visa required!

Here’s a cut and paste training request form to send to your boss!

Get more info button

CTNS Upgrade Coming: Buy Now to Get Two Courses Free!

CTNS logo

New Course 2241 Introduction to Broadband Telecommunications along with existing Course 2221 Fundamentals of Voice over IP will be added to the CTNS Certification Package before year-end.

The price of the CTNS package will increase when the number of courses increases from six to eight. Since all existing customers will automatically get the two new courses at no additional charge, you can beat the price increase by purchasing CTNS before the upgrade and get the two new courses, when they are released, for free!

Wireless Telecommunications Course Updated! New Lesson on 5G

Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications has received a major update including 5G, Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) and more. Free access for current customers.

Updates of TCO Certification courses continue to roll out with a major new release of Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications, a comprehensive course on wireless, including radio fundamentals, cellular and mobile telecommunications, LTE, 5G, Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) and more.

Wireless Telecommunications logo
Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications

All current customers will automatically see the updated version in their dashboard.

If you’re not already registered for this course, we invite you to join the many people who have benefited from gaining these knowledge skills… and TCO Certification to prove it!

Taking this course, you will develop a solid understanding of the fundamental principles of radio, mobility and cellular, network components and operation, digital radio, mobile phone calls and mobile Internet access, spectrum-sharing technologies like OFDM, and LTE and 5G. In addition, you will get up to speed on the components, operation and latest standards for Wi-Fi, and the essentials of satellite communications.

We’ll cut through the jargon to demystify wireless, explaining the fundamentals of cellular and mobility, the buzzwords, the network, technologies and generations, the underlying ideas, and how it all works together… in plain English.

Course Lessons
1. Introduction (free sample lesson)
2. Mobile Network Components, Jargon and Operation
3. Cellular Principles
4. PSTN Phone Calls using the Phone App: Voice Minutes
5. Mobile Internet: Data Plan
6. Spectrum-Sharing: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
7. 4G LTE: Mobile Broadband
8. 5G New Radio: Enhanced Mobile Broadband, IoT Communications
9. Wi-Fi: 802.11 Wireless LANs (free sample lesson)
10. Communication Satellites

detailed course descriptionvery detailed PDF brochureregister

Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications is available on its own, or included in CTNS, CTA and CTSME Certification Packages.

Tutorial: 5G Wireless

One place 5G base stations will be deployed is on streetlights

Now that 4G cellular mobile is settled, talk is now turning to 5G.

The first thing to know about 5G is that there are currently no standards, no detailed agreement on what exactly it will be. But we have a number of general indicators to guide the discussion:

1. 5G will employ radio frequencies well above what is currently used for cellular.
The current frequency bands for 3G/4G cellular top out at about 2.6 GHz. Proposals for frequency bands for 5G include “millimeter wave” bands, that is, wavelengths varying between 1 and 10 mm, which correspond to frequencies between about 30 and 300 GHz. No doubt, in the future, there will be unified 5G systems with variations operating in all frequency bands; but the current emphasis is on new technology in the millimeter wave bands.

2. 5G will provide very high bit rates.
With carrier frequencies at 30 GHz and above, very wide frequency bands around those center frequencies can be employed, allowing the radio frequency modems to achieve high numbers of bits per second. In addition, Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) designs can implement massive parallel communications, radically increasing the capacity available to a user. Initial designs and trials have measured 5 Gb/s (5,000 Mb/s). No doubt, this will be pushed beyond 10 Gb/s.

3. Initially, 5G will not be a replacement for 4G.
At millimeter wave frequencies, in-building penetration and refraction around obstacles is poor, and the atmosphere attenuates (diminishes) the signal to the point that line-of-sight between the antennas is necessary, and useful transmission range is measured in the hundreds of meters (yards). This means that the first deployments of 5G will be in environments where base stations can be closely spaced.

One application for all this bandwidth is traffic control: going beyond today’s standalone self-driving vehicles to vehicles communicating with each other and with traffic control systems, with base stations deployed on street lights as suggested by the picture.

We’ll be covering 5G on the last day of BOOT CAMP.

more info

New video!

New video posted!  This is part of the introductory lesson of CTNS Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications.

The length of the shadow behind an object is proportional to the frequency of the energy.

Click to watch on YouTube

For more information:

Course page: https://www.teracomtraining.com/online-courses-certification/teracom-overview-l2106.htm

CTNS Certification page:
https://www.teracomtraining.com/online-courses-certification/teracom-overview-ctns.htm

Wireless Telecommunications is a comprehensive course on wireless, mobile telecommunications plus wireless LANs and satellites.

We begin with basic concepts and terminology including base stations and transceivers, mobile switches and backhaul, handoffs, cellular radio concepts and digital radio concepts.

Then, we cover spectrum-sharing technologies and their variations in chronological order: GSM/TDMA vs. CDMA for second generation, 1X vs. UMTS CDMA for third generation along with their data-optimized 1XEV-DO and HSPA, how Steve Jobs ended the standards wars with the iPhone and explaining the OFDM spectrum-sharing method of LTE for 4G.

This course is completed with a lesson on WiFi, or more precisely, 802.11 wireless LANs, and a lesson on satellite communications.

You’ll gain a solid understanding of the key principles of wireless and mobile networks:
• Coverage, capacity and mobility
• Why cellular radio systems are used
• Mobile network components and operation
• Registration and handoffs
• Digital radio
• “Data” over cellular: Internet access
• Cellular technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM
• Generations: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G
• Systems: GSM, UMTS, 1X, HSPA, LTE
• WiFi, 802.11 wireless LANs
• Satellite communications

Development #4: A Worldwide Standard for Mobile Wireless

A closer look at the fourth item in our list of eight major recent developments and trends in telecom.

Telecommunications technology is constantly changing and improving – seemingly faster and faster every year – and at Teracom, we keep our training courses up to date to reflect these changes. In a previous post, we identified eight major developments and trends in telecommunications incorporated in our training.

In this post, we take a closer look at the fourth development:
a worldwide standard for mobile wireless has finally been achieved with 4G LTE.


Mobility means it is possible to start communicating with a particular radio base station, then when moving physically away, be handed off to another base station down the road to continue communications uninterrupted. In a non-mobile system (like WiFi), communication ceases if you move too far away.

The first generation (1G) of mobile radio was characterized by analog FM on frequency channels. Numerous incompatible systems were deployed: AMPS in North America, TACS in the UK, NMT in Finland and others.

The second generation (2G) was digital, which means modems communicating 1s and 0s between the handset and base station. Again, several incompatible systems were deployed, and two warring factions emerged, which could be called the “GSM/TDMA faction”, and the “CDMA faction”.

By far, the most popular 2G system was GSM, a European technology where a number of users time-share a single radio channel. Another system was IS-136, called “TDMA” in North America, deployed by the company currently known as AT&T Wireless in the US and Rogers in Canada.

A less popular 2G system employed CDMA, using technology patented by American company Qualcomm, and deployed by Verizon, Sprint and Canadian telephone companies.

These 2G systems were totally incompatible. A basic phone from a carrier could not work on another carrier unless they both used exactly the same system.

To try to avoid a repeat of the incompatibility for the third generation, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) struck a standards committee in year 2000 called IMT-2000, its mission to define a world standard for 3G.

They failed. IMT-2000 instead published a 3G “standard” with five incompatible variations. The two serious variations were both CDMA – but differed on the width of the radio bands, the control infrastructure and synchronization method among other things.

The GSM/TDMA faction favored the deployment of CDMA in a 5 MHz wide band. This was called IMT-DS, Direct Spread, Wideband CDMA and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS). Its data-optimized version was called HSPA.

The CDMA faction favored a strategy that was a basically a software upgrade from 2G, employing existing 1.25 MHz radio carriers. This is called IMT-MC, CDMA multi-carrier, CDMA2000 and 1X. Its data-optimized version was called 1XEV-DO.

Again, these 3G systems were completely incompatible. A basic UMTS phone could not work on a 1X network.

Market forces finally pushed the two camps together.

The fact that there were far more users in the GSM/TDMA faction meant that their phones were less expensive, had better features and appeared on the market first. This put the carriers in the CDMA/1X faction at a disadvantage. This trend was continuing into 3G, where UMTS phones would have the same advantage over 1X phones.

Then, Steve Jobs invented the world’s most popular consumer electronic product, the iPhone – but only permitted carriers in the GSM/TDMA/UMTS faction to have it. This severely tilted the playing field.

In the face of this, the CDMA/1X faction threw in the towel, and decided to go with the GSM/TDMA/UMTS faction’s proposal for the fourth generation (4G), called LTE, to level the playing field.

And once this was agreed, Steve Jobs allowed the iPhone on all networks. One of the legacies of Steve Jobs will not just be the iPhone, but ending the standards wars by pushing the industry to agree on LTE as a single worldwide standard for mobile communications as of the fourth generation, using the leverage of his iPhone.


I hope you’ve found this article useful!

If you like, you can watch a video segment of our instructor explaining why LTE became a worldwide standard on youTube

Additional explanation of cellular concepts, TDMA, CDMA and LTE is available in:
Teracom online tutorials
Course 101: Telecom, Datacom and Networking
for Non-Engineering Professionals

Textbook T4210
Telecom, Datacom and Networking
for Non-Engineer
s

Online Course 2206 Wireless Telecommunications
(part of the CTNS certification coursework)
Online Course 2232 Mobile Communications
(part of the CWA certification coursework), and
DVD Course V6 “Wireless”