DVD6: Wireless Released! Free lesson, introduction, launch specials!

We’re very pleased to announce the release of our latest DVD-Video Course DVD6 Wireless: totally new, over 3 hours long with 28 lessons and a 74-page course book and certificate.

You will gain a real understanding of how digital radio communications works, how a cellular network operates, the cellular technologies and generations, plus WiFi, Bluetooth, satellite and much more.

Take advantage of the launch specials to get this career- and productivity-enhancing knowledge upgrade today: https://www.teracomtraining.com/specials.htm#dvd6

DVD6: Wireless introduction and highlights

Free lesson 2.03 Mobile Network Components and Operation

Teracom DVD-Video Course DVD6: Wireless
ISBN 9781894887083 Length 185 minutes. 74-page course book.

Radio Fundamentals • Spectrum • Digital Radio • Mobile Network Components and Operation • Cellular Principles • Digital Voice • Data • Mobile Internet • Cellular Technologies • TDMA • CDMA • OFDM • Generations • 2G GSM • 3G 1X • UMTS • HSPA • 4G LTE • Fixed Wireless • Bluetooth • WiFi • WiFi Security • Encryption • WiMAX • Point-to-Point Microwave • Satellite

detailed course outline

Textbook now available on iTunes, Amazon Kindle and Google Play Books

Almost finished a 3.5-year-long project to get our training courses available online, last major milestone accomplished today with the companion reference textbook now available on iTunes, Amazon Kindle and Google Play Books.

Learning all the material in the book took 25 years.
Writing the book in Word took six months.
Putting it in Adobe inDesign to export it in EPUB format (eBook) took three months.

Amazon took 10 minutes to open an account and upload the book to Amazon kindle.
http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00F3KCDOS
You can read the book on pretty much any device
They take 70% commission and pay 30% to the author.

Google took a week to get the book uploaded and online on Google Play Books.
https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Telecom_Datacom_and_Networking_for_Non_Engineers_C?id=aAQ9Nub9VIMC
You can read the book on pretty much any device.
They take 30% commission and pay 70% to the author.
They put the book on sale at a reduced price, but still pay 70% of the list price to the author.

Apple took two weeks to get uploaded and online on iTunes iBooks.
https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/telecom-datacom-networking/id705339315?mt=11
You can only upload the book from an Apple computer. Not a PC, iPhone, iPad or iPod.
You can only read the book on iPhone, iPad or iPod touch. Not on any computer.
They take 30% commission and pay 70% to the author.
They put the book on sale at a reduced price, but only pay 70% of the sale price to the author.

Why did I put Amazon first on the list?? They keep all the money! Google Play seems the best, since it is both the cheapest and you can read the book on any device. But does anyone actually buy books on Google Play Books? iTunes of course has the most users and so maybe the most people will see it there. Time will tell…

My favorite: the FedEx Analogy to explain the OSI layers, what each layer does and how they work together in protocol stacks.

Here’s the latest free tutorial, with embedded video of yours truly and my favorite analogy: the FedEx Analogy to explain the OSI layers, what each layer does and how they work together in protocol stacks.  Enjoy!

http://www.teracomtraining.com/online-courses-certification/samples/lesson1114-fedex-analogy.htm

Tutorial: MAC Addresses

What is a MAC address?

The term comes from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802 series of standards for LANs and MANs developed following the invention of Ethernet LANs by the Digital Equipment Corporation (now a part of HP), Xerox and Intel in 1979.

And people say Xerox never does anything original!

The first kind of LAN, Ethernet, employed a bus topology. The term bus comes from the Latin word omnibus, meaning “all”. It is used in electrical power systems, where a bus is a thick metal bar used to distribute electricity to many circuits.

bus bar

see the rest:
https://www.teracomtraining.com/tutorials/teracom-tutorial-mac-address.htm

Cheers

Cisco VoIP phone vulnerability: continuously monitor and record all sound in people's offices, boardrooms and bedrooms

A recent report of a Cisco VoIP phone vulnerability is very disturbing.

http://www.networkworld.com/community/blog/cisco-issues-alert-voip-vulnerability

This is more serious than phone calls.

If the network world article is accurate, its first paragraph “vulnerability in its IP phones that allows hackers to access calls and call data” should read

“vulnerability in its IP phones that allows attackers to eavesdrop in people’s offices, boardrooms and bedrooms”

— or in fact, “continuously monitor and record all sound in people’s offices, boardrooms and bedrooms”.

!

Tutorial: What is a Port?

The term “port” crops up in IP networking, particularly in the context of rules in routers and software firewalls. One hears about “opening a port on a firewall” and “TCP ports” and “UDP ports”.

So just what is a “port”, exactly?

Like about 40% of the words in English after the Norman invasion of southern England following the Battle of Hastings in 1066, the English word “port” is French. Une porte is a door.

Of course, the French got it from Latin: porta (gate, door). The Latin word portus (port, harbor, and earlier, entrance, passage) and the Greek word poros (journey, passage, way) are obviously related.

In the computer hardware business, a port is a doorway into the machine: a jack, where a cable can be connected. In days past, there were serial ports and parallel ports on PCs. Today, we have USB ports and LAN ports. Technicians talk about connecting customers to ports on access equipment, for example, equipment with banks of modems.

In the computer software business, a port can be thought of as a doorway into the software running on the machine, a passageway to a specific computer program running on the computer.

Why is this necessary? Since there can be many computer programs (a.k.a. applications, apps) running on the same computer at the same time, when trying to communicate to a particular program, we require a mechanism to identify it, a way of telling the host computer to which program to relay our communications.

For example, we all know that it’s possible to have multiple applications using the Internet connection on a computer at the same time. Think of an Outlook email program and a Chrome browser program running at the same time on a PC connected to the Internet.

When data arrives at this computer, how does the computer know whether this data is for the email program or for the browser program? And how does it convey the data to the correct program?

The answer: every program is assigned a number called a port number. Your browser is assigned port 80, for example.

Here’s how it works: the sending program creates a message and tags it with the port number identifying the program it wishes to communicate with on the destination computer. This is put in a packet that is tagged with the network address (IP address) of the destination host computer and transmitted. When the packet arrives at the destination computer identified by the IP address, this receiving computer looks at the destination port number and parks the message in a memory space associated with that port number. The program on the destination computer assigned that port number is constantly checking that memory space to see if there is anything new waiting for it.

The result is the ability for a computer program running on one computer to communicate with a specific computer program on another computer.

Visiting our warehouse service a couple of weeks ago, I was struck by the analogy possible between the idea of computer ports and a multi-tenant warehouse, so whipped out my Android smartphone and took a picture with the totally cool panoramic feature.

The warehouse is analogous to the host computer. It has a single street address. It handles goods for multiple users. Users have space allocated inside the warehouse. The warehouse has (on this side) six ports, also called loading docks. Each port has a number. A user can be assigned a port, either temporarily or permanently.

To communicate goods to that user, they’re carried in a shipping container (IP packet) on a truck (Ethernet frame) over a road (LAN cable) to the warehouse at its street address (IP address). To get the contents of the shipping container delivered to the correct user, the truck is backed up to the appropriate loading dock (port) identified by its door number (port number) and the contents of the container are unloaded to the space behind that port.

In computer communications today, the port number is 16 bits long, and the source and destination port number are populated at the beginning of the transport layer header, Layer 4 of the OSI model. The world’s most popular standard protocols for implementing the transport layer are the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

Hence, one hears of “TCP ports” and “UDP ports”, particularly when configuring rules for packet forwarding on a router or firewall. When one “blocks” a port, that means that communication to a particular computer program is denied. When one “opens” a port, communication to that computer program is being allowed.

Standard practice is to allow communications only to specifically-identified ports and deny all other communications.

The port number of the application and the IP address of the host computer concatenated together is called a socket in UNIX and IP and is called a transport service in the OSI model. The result is the ability to identify the specific source computer program on one computer and the specific desired destination computer program on a different computer.

I hope you’ve enjoyed this tutorial! This discussion is covered in the following Teracom training courses:
Instructor-led Course 101: Telecom, Datacom and Networking for Non-Engineering Professionals, Lesson 12.17
Instructor-led Course 110: IP, VoIP and MPLS for the Non-Engineering Professional, Lesson 8.25-8.27
DVD-Video Course V4: Understanding Networking 1
DVD-Video Course V5: Understanding Networking 2, Lesson 2.11
Online Course L2112 The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks, Lesson 8
Online Course L2113 IP Networks, Routers and Addresses, Lessons 7 and 9

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Holy Cow! Baby Born June 6 Weighed 340 Trillion Trillion Trillion Pounds

IPv6: 340 Trillion Trillion Trillion Addresses

Happy birthday IP version 6 – you finally arrived!

World IPv6 Launch Day was June 6, 2012 (about 12 years later than originally planned).

Hundreds of companies permanently enabled IPv6 protocol stacks on their servers on June 6, allowing the small percentage of devices (primarily Android smartphones) that had applications, operating systems and carriers all supporting IPv6 to communicate IPv6 packets end-to-end.

The address fields in IPv6 packets are 128 bits long, meaning 2 to the power 128 addresses.

That’s 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses.

This is a number beyond human comprehension.

Forget about questions like “how long is eternity going to last for”, “how far is it to the other side of the universe?”, “what happened before the Big Bang”, “where did all that energy come from in the first place?”, “who is God’s God?, and “who is God’s God’s God?”; we humans are not capable of understanding 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456.

Teracom Instructor Richard Olsen did some calculations to help us grasp this number, including calculating how many grains of sand there are in the Earth’s crust. (Can you tell Richard is an Engineer?)
I’ll let Richard tell the story in his own words:

“I was teaching at Motorola University circa 1998 and in discussing IPv6, a student said, ‘You know, there are enough IP addresses in IPv6 for every square inch of the Solar System.’ I thought, that’s crazy, he’s out of his mind. I just said, ‘Wow!'”

“Anyway, while flying home I thought, I wonder how many square inches there are in the Solar System anyway.  I think I’ll figure that out when I get home.”

“First I had to decide what ‘square inches of the Solar System’ meant. I decided to use the surface area of all the planets in square inches. That didn’t even come close to the number of IP addresses in IPv6.

I decided to throw in the Sun because that sucker is really big. Didn’t even come close. Then I decided to use the square inches inside the orbit of Pluto (this was before Pluto got kicked out of the Planet Club – poor Pluto!). Still didn’t even come close.”

“Finally, I’d always heard “IPv6 has enough IP addresses for every grain of sand on all the beaches on Earth”. By this time, I knew that couldn’t be. So I finally decided to calculate IP addresses per grain of sand over the entire surface of the Earth, including under the oceans, one mile deep assuming 10,000 grains of sand per cubic inch.”

“Answer: an astounding 664 BILLION IP addresses per grain of sand. Now, that’s a big number!!”

“The most commonly quoted number of stars in a galaxy is 100 billion and the most commonly quoted number of galaxies in the Universe is 100 billion. Assuming there are 10 planets around every star, then there are 10 x 100 x 100 billion billion planets in the Universe.

So how many IP addresses per planet in the entire Universe? Answer: 3.4 quadrillion IP addresses per planet!”

“The number of IP addresses in IPv6 is truly a prodigious number.”

I’ve told Richard’s story many times in classes. Over the years, like all good stories, it became embellished, and the story became
“666 billion addresses per grain of sand in the Earth’s crust to a depth one mile deep”, and “more addresses than there are square inches on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto.”

After reading Richard’s story again recently, I figured I had better verify the last claim, so I asked Richard to calculate the number of square inches on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto and divide that into 2**128.

It turns out my embellishment was not wrong: there are 5 millon addresses per square inch on the sphere that encloses the solar system out to Pluto.
Hope this all helps you grasp the number 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456.

New Online Course L2114: MPLS and Carrier Networks

MPLS and Carrier Networks
MPLS and Carrier Networks
is a comprehensive training course designed to build a solid understanding of carrier packet networks and services, the terminology, technologies, configuration, operation and most importantly, the underlying ideas… in plain English.

This course can be taken by both those who need simply an overview and introduction to the fundamentals of carrier packet networks and MPLS, and by those who need to get up to speed and establish a solid base that project or job-specific knowledge can be built on.

We’ll cut through the buzzwords and marketing to demystify carrier packet networks and services, explaining Service Level Agreements, traffic profiles, virtual circuits, QoS, Class of Service, Differentiated Services, integration, convergence and aggregation, MPLS and other network technologies, and how they relate to TCP/IP without bogging down on details.

You will gain career- and productivity-enhancing knowledge of the structure, components and operation of carrier packet networks and services, how they are implemented, packaged and marketed by carriers and how they are used by government, business… and other carriers.

Tutorial: TCP/IP over MPLS

TCP/IP over MPLS Protocol Stack

Please click here to see the full tutorial on its web page, with the necessary diagram…

We’re getting ready to release another Online Course at the end of March: L2014 “MPLS and Carrier Packet Services.”

As a sneak preview, this newsletter’s free tutorial is part of Lesson 11 “TCP/IP over MPLS” from that course.

NOTE: You may find this tutorial a bit overwhelming, landing smack on your computer screen with no preparation, like a parachutist whose chute didn’t open landing in a cow field.

In the Online Course “MPLS and Carrier Packet Services”, there are TEN lessons building up to this one.

We’re actually going to be recommending at least two modules: “The OSI Layers and Protocol Stacks” and “IP Packet Networks, Addresses and Routers” as prerequisites… so that would be at least THIRTY-FIVE lessons building up to this one.

So… if you are already familiar with the OSI Layers and protocol stacks, and IP packets and LANs, you’ll find the following lesson easier to follow.

If you’re not already familiar with those pre-requisites, then you might want to watch some other free tutorials first:
Video Tutorial VT-3 “Packets, Frames, Addresses and Routing”, Video Tutorial VT-4 OSI Layers: The FedEx Analogy, and the “Datacom and Networking Fundamentals” section of our free online tutorials.

The tutorial is part of the text and one graphic from Lesson 11 “TCP/IP over MPLS”. The Online Course when released at the end of March will have extensive animations following along with a voiceover of the text. Enjoy!

Please click here to see the full tutorial on its web page, with the necessary diagram…